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CCUS在低碳电力系统中的作用

The role of CCUS in low-carbon power systems

【作       者】:
【机       构】: 国际能源署
【承研机构】:

【原文地址】: https://webstore.iea.org/the-role-of-CCUS-in-low-carbon-power-systems
【发表年份】:

2020

摘要

要实现气候和能源目标,就需要在全球范围内对电力系统进行根本性的加速转型。决策者必须共同支持快速向低碳发电的转变,同时满足电力需求的强劲增长,这要归因于发展中经济体能源获取的增加和最终用途部门的电气化。碳捕获,利用和存储(或“ CCUS”)技术可以通过以下三种方式在这一转变中发挥重要作用:

首先,改造碳捕集技术是一种重要的解决方案,可避免“锁定”现有化石燃料发电厂的大量排放,同时还为电厂所有者提供了一项资产保护策略,以进行近期投资。这在亚洲尤为重要,因为亚洲的燃煤电厂平均寿命只有12岁。

其次,增加可变的可再生发电量需要可调度的能源,以实现灵活性和资源充足性。电池和其他形式的能量存储正在进一步开发和部署,但是碳捕获,利用和存储技术也是低碳技术产品组合的一部分,能够满足对灵活性(管理短期和季节性)日益增长的需求变化)。这些策略为电力系统转型中的创新不确定性提供了技术对冲。

第三,通过将碳捕集技术与生物能源相结合,可以实现负排放发电厂,这对于抵消难以减排的部门的排放并支持“净零”气候目标可能至关重要。如今,只有两个大型CCUS设施在电力部门运营。但是,这些首屈一指的工厂的经验表明,通过进一步的研究,开发和部署,可以显着降低成本并改善技术。敦促决策者提供有针对性的政策支持,包括资本赠款,公共采购和税收抵免,以启动对配备CCUS的电厂的近期投资。

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英文摘要

Meeting climate and energy goals requires a fundamental and accelerated transformation of power systems globally. Decision makers collectively must support a rapid shift to low-carbon generation while meeting strong growth in power demand, driven by increased energy access in developing economies and electrification of end-use sectors. Carbon capture, utilisation and storage (or “CCUS”) technologies can play an important role in this transformation in three ways: First, retrofitting carbon capture technologies is an important solution to avoid the “lock-in” of emissions from the vast fleet of existing fossil-fuelled power plants while also providing plant owners with an asset protection strategy for recent investments. This is of particular relevance in Asia, where the average age of coal-fired power plants is just 12 years. Second, increasing variable renewable generation requires dispatchable energy for flexibility and resource adequacy. Batteries and other forms of energy storage are being further developed and deployed, but carbon capture, utilisation and storage technologies are also part of the portfolio of low-carbon technologies able to meet the growing need for flexibility (to manage both short-term and seasonal variations). These strategies offer a technological hedge against innovation uncertainty in the power system transformation. Third, through its combination with bioenergy, carbon capture technologies can enable negative-emission power plants, which may be critical for offsetting emissions in harder-to-abate sectors and to support “net-zero” climate goals. Today, only two large-scale CCUS facilities are operating in the power sector. But experience from these first-of-a-kind plants highlights the potential to reduce costs significantly and improve technology with further research, development and deployment. Policy makers are urged to provide targeted policy support, including capital grants, public procurement and tax credits, to kick-start near-term investment in CCUS-equipped power plants.

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