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Leishmaniasis in high-burden countries: an epidemiological update...

高负担国家的利什曼病:基于2014年报告数据的流行病学更新

【作       者】:

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【机       构】: 世界卫生组织
【承研机构】:

【原文地址】: https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/who-wer9122
【发表时间】:

2016-06-03

摘要

The leishmaniases are a group of diseases caused by protozoan parasites from >20 Leishmania species that are transmitted to humans by the bite of infected female phlebotomine sandflies (98 of which are of medical importance). There are 4 main forms of the disease: visceral leishmaniasis (VL, also known as kala-azar); post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL); cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL); and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL). While cutaneous leishmaniasis is the most common form of the disease, visceral leishmaniasis is the most serious and can be fatal if untreated. Additionally, leishmaniasis can be classified as anthroponotic or zoonotic depending on whether the natural reservoir of the parasite is human or animal. In 2012, WHO led an effort to report on the burden and distribution of the leishmaniases in 102 countries, areas or territories worldwide. In most of the country profiles prepared at that time, the data referred to the number of cases (of CL or VL) reported until 2010; the maps of incidence included data from the first subnational level for 2008. From the data available, WHO estimated that 90% of global VL cases occurred in 6 countries: Bangladesh, Brazil, Ethiopia, India, South Sudan and Sudan. Of the global number of CL cases, >70% occurred in 10 countries: Afghanistan, Algeria, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ethiopia, the Islamic Republic of Iran, Peru, Sudan and the Syrian Arab Republic.

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