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Preventing diarrhoea through better water, sanitation and hygiene

通过改善水、卫生和个人卫生来预防腹泻

【作       者】:

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【机       构】: 世界卫生组织
【承研机构】:

【原文地址】: https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9789241564823
【发表时间】:

2014-01-01

摘要

A series of studies, led by WHO in collaboration with 14 leading research institutions, estimates the burden of disease caused by unsafe water, sanitation, and hygiene in 145 low- and middle-income countries. The study results are summarized in a new report,? Full details of the study are available in a series of five Open Access journal articles, beginning with a review of global monitoring of burden of disease, authored by? ?Three systematic reviews then follow, providing up-to-date estimates of the prevalence of poor water, sanitation, and hygiene practices.? review the microbial quality of drinking-water, and present estimates that 1.8 billion people globally use a source of drinking-water that is faecally contaminated. ?in their review of handwashing practices, estimate that approximately 19% of the world’s population washes hands with soap after contact with excreta. The? ?and? ?systematic reviews use meta-regression to estimate the impacts of poor water, sanitation, and hygiene, on diarrheal disease (Figure 1). These impacts are then combined with global estimates of key exposures including use of improved water and sanitation, drawing on data from the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation (JMP), and with global figures on diarrhoeal mortality by? ?to calculate the disease burden which could be prevented by improving water, sanitation, and hygiene practices. ? ? ? Inadequate drinking water and sanitation are estimated to cause 502 000 and 280 000 diarrhoea deaths, respectively. The most likely estimate of disease burden from inadequate hand hygiene amounts to 297 000 deaths. In total, 842 000 diarrhoea deaths are estimated to be caused by this cluster of risk factors, which accounts for 1.5% of the total disease burden and 58% of diarrhoeal diseases. In children under five years old, 361 000 deaths could be prevented, representing 5.5% of deaths in that age group. The publications are freely available from the journal Tropical Medicine & International Health.

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