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Why spatial reasoning matters for education policy

空间推理对教育政策的重要性

【作       者】:

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【机       构】: 美国企业研究所
【承研机构】:

【原文地址】: https://www.aei.org/research-products/report/why-spatial-reasoning-matters-for-education-policy/
【发表时间】:

2018-10-04

摘要

Support for Kavanaugh and past nominees: Data from several pollsters on past Supreme Court nominations show that initial support for confirmation usually outweighs opposition, although many people opt not to weigh in either way. Early polls about Brett Kavanaugh’s nomination show a slightly narrower division between support and opposition than there was in initial polls about recent past nominees (Gallup, Pew, Fox News, Huffington Post/YouGov). Ideology of the Court and partisan approval: More people today think the current Supreme Court is too conservative (29 percent) than think it is too liberal (21 percent), a reversal from polls in 2009–16, although a plurality (44 percent) continue to say it is “just about right” (Gallup). Views of the Court have been divided by partisanship since Bush v. Gore. Approval of the Court rose among Republicans from 26 percent in September 2016 to 72 percent in July 2018, while it fell from 67 percent to 38 percent among Democrats over the same time period. Confirmation factors: Pollsters have used different wording to understand what Americans think senators should consider in voting on a nominee. A majority of Americans in a recent Pew survey said Supreme Court nominees should be required to answer when senators ask them about issues such as abortion. At the same time, a recent Gallup poll found people are divided as to whether senators would be justified in voting against a qualified nominee if they disagree with the nominee’s stance on issues such as abortion, gun control, or affirmative action. A majority of registered voters in a recent Fox poll said it is unacceptable for a senator to base his or her vote on a nominee solely on the nominee’s position on abortion.Roe: Most Americans do not want the Supreme Court to overturn Roe v. Wade. Three recent polls by Gallup, Fox News, and Kaiser Family Foundation all found that more than 6 in 10 said Roe should not be overturned. Legality of abortion: Decades of polling has shown that pluralities to majorities think abortion should be legal in some circumstances or cases (Gallup, Pew). Most (60 percent in Gallup’s 2018 survey) say abortion should generally be legal during the first three months of pregnancy, but few (13 percent) say that it should during the last three months. In General Social Survey questions asked since 1972, majorities have consistently said it should be possible for a woman to obtain a legal abortion if her health is seriously endangered, if the pregnancy was a result of rape, or if there is a strong chance of a serious defect in the baby (NORC). Support for legal abortion “for any reason” is lower. Deal breaker for voters? Surveys suggest people care about a candidate’s position on abortion, but most don’t see it as a deal breaker. Sixty-four percent of registered voters in a December 2017 Quinnipiac survey said they would still vote for a candidate with whom they did not agree on the issue of abortion. In a March 2018 Public Religion Research Institute poll, 18 percent of adults said they would only vote for a candidate who shares their views on abortion, a plurality (47 percent) said they would consider a candidate’s position on abortion as just one of many important factors, and 30 percent did not see abortion as a major issue.Americans view democracy positively but are deeply dissatisfied with the US democratic government’s current performance. For example, 86 percent told Pew pollsters in early 2017 they thought “a democratic system where representatives elected by citizens decide what becomes law” is a good way of governing this country, compared to 46 percent who said they were satisfied with the way democracy was working in our country.

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